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The Chemistry of Photography

Informational Page (see description)

The Chemistry of Photography

Informational Page (see description)

Product Description

The Chemistry of Photography

Including History, Chemistry of Development, Fixation, Toning, Intensification and Reduction


THE purpose of this book is to supply a demand from photographers for a simple explanation of the chemistry of photography. This we have attempted to do in a way that requires little chemical knowledge for understanding. So many troubles are likely to occur in the art of finishing photographs that we have endeavored to point out the basic causes of the more common ones, with definite suggestions for their elimination.

This is the sixth edition and if, in reading this book, you believe we could include other material which would make it more worthwhile and valuable to you, please tell us, so we can be working on it for our next edition.

—Mallinckrodt Chemical Works


Chapter I, The History of Photographic Chemistry — page 11

Chapter II, The Chemistry of Development — page 16

  • Functions of reducing agents (developers)
  • Alkalis to permit the developing agent to reach all the silver salts
  • Restrainers to make the developer selective
  • Preservatives for long life of solutions
  • Common developing solution troubles

Chapter III, Fine Grain Development — page 22

  • Features of fine-grain development
  • Reasons for special problems in this field
  • Of rates of development on gelatin and on silver grains
  • Avoidance of alkalis
  • High content of formulas
  • Two typical formulas
  • Chemicals suitable for fine grain development

Chapter IV, The Chemistry of Fixation — page 26

  • Solubility of unexposed silver compounds
  • The function of “Hypo”
  • Acid to combat alkali in the developer
  • Preventing decomposition of Hypo
  • Preventing oxidation
  • Hardeners
  • Need of short-stop baths
  • A short-stop formula
  • Common fixing bath troubles

Chapter V, The Chemistry of Toning — page 30

  • Changing the neutral black image to a more pleasing or more appropriate color
  • Sulfide processes
  • Direct sepia processes and formulas
  • Indirect sepia processes and formulas
  • Ferrocyanide processes and formulas

Chapter VI, The Chemistry of Reduction — page 46

  • Diagnosing negative faults
  • “Weakening” the negative for satisfactory printing
  • Converting part of the image to soluble silver salts
  • Over-exposure vs. over-development
  • Reduction processes
  • Subtractive type and formulas
  • Super-proportional or flattening type and formulas
  • Proportional type and formula

Chapter VII, The Chemistry of Intensification — page 54

  • “Strengthening” the negative for satisfactory printing
  • Need for both reduction and intensification
  • Image needed for satisfactory intensification
  • Underdevelopment vs. under-exposure
  • Intensification processes
  • Mercury type and formulas
  • Mercuric iodide type and formulas
  • Chromium type and formula
  • Silver type and formula
  • Uranium type and formula
  • Bleaching-sulfiding type

Chapter VIII, Tips and Tables for Photographers — page 66

  • Temperature control
  • Differences in action and effect of common developing agents
  • Water, its importance and methods of purification
  • A method that insures adding correct amount of bromide
  • Weights and measures
  • The metric system
  • A simple formula for diluting solutions
  • Rules for storing chemicals
  • How to open glass stoppered bottles
  • Methods of cleaning trays and tanks
  • “Metol” poisoning
  • Removal of developer stains from the hands
  • Atomic weights
  • Why “Monohydrated” Carbonate?
  • Carbonate conversion table

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