INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE USE OF THE VIKING CAMERA
The Agfa Viking Camera has been skillfully designed to enable you to secure excellent results without possessing special photographic knowledge. However, for best results, you must follow a few, simple instructions. Clear, sharp pictures are the results of having carefully made a few, easily memorized adjustments before each exposure. These instructions explain each operation of the camera, and you will be repaid with better pictures if you read the following pages carefully before making any exposures.
If you desire additional information on camera operation and picture-making, read Better Photography Made Easy, a particularly helpful, 60-page booklet published by Agfa Ansco and sold by most photographic dealers at $.25 per copy. Agfa Ansco also maintains a special department to answer your inquiries and help you in your photographic problems.
The PD16 Viking takes 8 pictures 2½ x 4¼ inches on PD16 roll film. For best results, use one of the several types of Agfa film available in this size, every film guaranteedPictures that Satisfy or a New Roll Free.
The focusing scale will be found on the top outer edge of the lens barrel, and will be identified by the series of figures running from 5 to Infinity. See illustration of lens mounting, Fig. 4. If the object to be photographed is 10 feet away, revolve the lens barrel until the figure 10 is opposite the indicating arrow between the words Agfa and Ansco on the circular plate above. Distances from the lens to all objects from 5 to 50 feet should be estimated as accurately as possible and set on the barrel. For subjects at a distance of over 50 feet, the barrel should be set at INF, or Infinity.
To use as a fixed focus camera, set the lens barrel at 15 feet and the diaphragm at 16. Thus everything from 9 feet to 43 feet will be in focus. The operation of the diaphragm is explained under the heading Diaphragm.
The shutter is the mechanism which actually makes the exposure when taking a picture. Simply expressed, it does nothing more than uncover the lens for a very short period of time so that light from the object photographed may pass through the lens and project an image upon the film. However, it does this uncovering job with a very high degree of accuracy and with a suitable range in speed. Thus the portion of light admitted through the lens may be a very small one, such as that when the shutter is operated at one hundredth of a second, or a larger portion such as that when the shutter is operated at a twentyfifth of a second.
TO REGULATE THE SHUTTER SPEED
Along the top of the lens mounting (Fig. 4) is a row of letters and B, 100, 50 and 25. T means time, B means Bulb, and 100, 50 and 25 indicate 1/1oo, 1/50 and 1/25 second respectively.
To set the shutter for any of these speeds, turn the ring (8, Fig. 1) until the black line is directly over the desired figure. In the shutter illustration, Fig. 4, the shutter is set for 1/25 second.
The shutter is operated, or tripped, by pressing in on the red shutter release button (9, Fig. 1) or by a cable release if such has been added. When the shutter is set for 1/25, 1/50 or 1/100 second, a single pressure on the release button trips the shutter, opening and closing it.
When making an exposure hold the camera steady and do not jar the camera when pressing in the shutter release button. Practice holding the camera in the various taking positions and operating the shutter until you are certain exposures can be made without moving the camera.
BULB AND TIME EXPOSURES
When the shutter is set for B or Bulb (a term surviving from the days when the shutter was operated by a rubber bulb) it stays open as long as the button remains depressed, and closes as soon as the pressure is released allowing the button to return. Bulb is used for comparatively short time exposures, as for example when light conditions do not permit instantaneous exposures. Since it is impossible to hold the camera perfectly still in the hands for any length of time, the camera must be used on a tripod or some other firm support when Bulb exposures are made.
When the shutter is set for T or Time, one inward press on the release opens the shutter, following which a second press is required to close it. In other words, the lens remains open the complete time, however long, between the two operations of the shutter release. Time is used for interior work or under any conditions for which very long exposures are necessary. Bulb and Time exposures should not be made of moving objects. Neither should the release button be jerked when the shutter is opened, for any motion of the camera will cause an unsharp image.
When using a cable release, pull out the vertical footrest (5, Fig. 1) and insert the release through the hole underneath the footrest.
The diaphragm is an adjustable circular opening between the components of the lens, which controls the amount of light passing through the lens. When the diaphragm is adjusted so that full aperture of the lens is utilized, it is said to be wide open." The F6.3 Viking is wide open" when set at F6.3. When the diaphragm is adjusted to a smaller opening, it is said to be stopped down."
The diaphragm on the camera is operated by means of a lever (7, Fig. 1) which is connected with the iris leaves between the lens components. When the lever is moved in one direction, the leaves open; in the other direction, the leaves close. Consequently, it is very easy to set the diaphragm for any lens opening.
In order to view the operation of this diaphragm, set the shutter speed on Time and press down once on the shutter release. Then, with the shutter open, move the diaphragm lever back and forth slowly, and you will be able to observe the change in the size of the opening as the lever moves.
You will notice that as the numbers increase from 6.3 to 32 the opening gets smaller, thereby allowing less light to reach the film.
The stops or settings indicated along the bottom of the shutter face plate are standard openings in the Focal or f System," and are of known exposure value regardless of the size or make of camera. They are referred to as f:6.3, f:8, f:11, f:16, f:22 and f:32.
DEPTH OF FIELD
Depth of field (often referred to as depth of focus) is the subject range over which your picture is in focus. For example when your Viking camera is set at F16 and focused at 12 feet everything from 8 feet to 25 feet from the camera will be in focus. When you increase the diaphragm stop or open up the lens you decrease the depth of field. For example with the camera focused at 12 feet and the lens set at 6.3 the depth of field is now only from IO to 15 feet.
From the Depth of Field Table you will notice that the depth of field not only decreases with the larger lens stops but also decreases when you are focusing on near objects. Therefore be very careful to focus as accurately as possible when taking pictures at distances under ten feet.